The Measurement Invariance of Customer Loyalty and Customer Experience across Firms, Industries, and Countries

Timothy B. Gravelle


Research on cross-national (and cross-group) measurement invariance is now well developed in the social and behavioural sciences, but this research has yet to engage research practitioners whose focus is measuring and modelling customer loyalty and customer experience. This is a notable gap in existing research on cross-group comparisons, especially considering the reliance of business decision-makers on customer feedback. Though standard measures of customer experience and loyalty are used in every industry, their measurement invariance across industries has not been subject to extensive testing. This article brings current thinking about cross-group comparisons and modern tools of multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) to the measurement of customer loyalty and customer experience across firms, industries, and countries, drawing on original large-scale survey data from the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada.


Customer research, measurement invariance, confirmatory factor analysis, United States, United Kingdom, Canada

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Copyright (c) 2021 Timothy B. Gravelle

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